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Sunday, July 09, 2006

I begin with the Name of Allaah

A Primer on Tawheed

As for Tawheed, then know - Brother and Sister Muslim - that our Salaf have divided it into three categories; each one dependant on the other - the servants Eemaan not being complete until all of them acquired:

Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (Maintaining the Unity of Lordship)

Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (Maintaining the Unity of Allaah's Names and Attributes).

Tawheed al-'Ebaadah (Maintaining The Unity of Worship)

Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyyah

This is: Acknowledgement and firm belief that Allaah the Sublime is alone in

Creating,

Owning and

Regulating/administering the Creation.

He has no partners in any of these actions and they are proved for Him alone.

You should also know that the disbelievers in the time of the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) affirmed all of the above but this did not enter them into Islam. The Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) fought against them.

The evidence lies in the speech of Allaah:

Say (O Muhammad): Who provides for you from the sky and the Earth? Or who owns the hearing and the sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs? They will say: "Allaah". Say: Will you then not be afraid of Allaah's punishment (for setting up rivals in worship with Allaah) [Yoonus 10:31]

and also His saying:

Say: To whom belongs the Earth and whatever is therein? If you do know! They will say: It is Allaah's. Say: Will you then not remember? Say: Who is the Lord of the Seven Heavens and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say: Allaah. Say: Will you then not fear Allaah? Say in whose hands is the sovereignty of everything. And He protects while against Him there is no protector, if you do know? They will say: (All that belongs) to Allaah. Say: How then are you deluded from the Truth? [Mu'minoon 23:84-89]

Tawheed ul-Uloohiyyah

This is: The Unification of all the acts of the servants, such as Supplication, taking oath and making sacrifice (slaughter), Hope, Fear, Reliance, Aspiration, Repentance, Remorse and all other acts of worship whether actions of the heart, tongue or limbs, for Allaah the Exalted alone. It is regarding this second type that dispute arose in both the ancient times and the modern, between the messengers and their respective communities.

The evidence lies in the speech of Allaah: And your Lord said: Call upon Me, I will respond to your (invocation). Verily! Those who scorn My worship shall surely enter Hell in humiliation. [Ghaafir 40:60]

Tawheed ul-Asmaa was-Sifaat

This is: Firm belief in everything which is found in the Book of Allaah and is reported in the Authentic Sunnah regarding Allaah's Names and Attributes by which Allaah has described Himself or by which the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) described Him - affirming them with the understanding of the Companions (ra) without denying any of them by Takyeef (enquiring into their modality), or Tamtheel and Tashbeeh (likening them to those of the creation), Ta'weel (interpreting them in a way inconsistent with the Book of Allaah, the Authentic Sunnah and the understanding of the Salaf), Tahreef (changing their meanings which are proved in the abovementioned three sources), or Ta'teel (denying or negating the meanings proven by the abovementioned three sources).

It also includes the belief that there is nothing like unto Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer.

Allaah the Exalted said: Say: He is Allaah, the Unique. The Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks. He begets not nor is He begotten. And there is none so-equal or comparable unto Him [Ikhlaas 112]

And He also said: And to Allaah belong the Most Beautiful Names so call upon Him by them. And leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech) against His Names. They will be requitted for what they used to do. [A'raaf 7:180]

And He also said: There is none like unto Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer [Shoora 42:11]

Notes:
Ruboobiyyah: A term denoting the absolute sovereignty and kingship of Allaah over the Heavens and the Earth and whatever is between them. The verb 'rabba' (and the noun 'Rabb' translated as 'Lord') is derived from it, meaning: "to nurture, to bring to fruition, to create and bring together all the elements necessary for the existence and well-being of something or someone". It has three aspects to it:

KHALQ (Creativity): Allaah by Himself makes everything from nothing

MULK (Possession): Allaah by Himself owns everything

AMR (Administration): Allaah by Himself controls, directs everything that He creates and owns.

Some of the proofs for these are: He (Allaah) has the creation and His is the command/administration. Blessed be Allaah the Rabb of all the Worlds [A'raaf 7:54]

Allaah is your Rabb. He owns everything and those whom you call upon besides Him do not even own the white stringy-sand on a datestone (such a minute posession) [Faatir 35:13]

Ibn al-Qayyim explains that some of Allaah's Names are related to His Ruboobiyyah and are more specific than the name Ar-Rabb. For example: Ar-Razzaaq (the Provider), al-Muhyee (the One Who gives life). Likewise, there are certain actions which are related to His Ruboobiyyah and are more specific than the name ar-Rabb. For example: sending down the rain, splitting the seed, giving someone honour, lowering someone, guiding or misguiding someone etc. (Al-Madarij)

Uloohiyyah: A term denoting that Allaah is the only One to Whom all forms of worship should be directed in truth, whether actions of the heart (feelings), words and statements and actions of the limbs. The word ilaah is derived from it meaning: Something that is adored, worshipped turned to i.e. an object of worship, subservience and adoration. There is nothing besides Allaah who is deserving of that and this is the meaning of the testimony Laa ilaaha illallaaha (There is no Ilaah which is deserving of any form of worship except Allaah alone), the truth and certainty of which every messenger came to establish. Allaah Azzawajall says: Your Ilaah is but one Ilaah [Nahl 16:20]

And He alone is the Ilaah in the Heavens and the Ilaah in the Earth [Zukhroof 43:84]

Invoke not, nor pray to any Ilaah along with Allaah. There is no Ilaah but He [Qasas 28:88]

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