Things which Allahu ta’ala clearly commands in the Qur’an al-karim are called Fard. Things which He clearly forbids and prohibits by saying “don’t” are called Haram. Things which Allahu ta’ala doesn’t clearly command but which are acts our Prophet praised or which he habitually did or which he did not prohibit, though seeing them done, are called Sunnat. It is kufr (disbelief) to dislike the sunnat. It is not a sin not to do them, as long as you like them. Those things which are not liked by him, and which also eradicate the blessings of worships are called Makruh. The things which are neither commanded nor prohibited are called Mubah. All these commands and prohibitions are called Shari’at or Af’al-i mukallafin or Ahkam-i Islamiyya.
Af’al-i mukallafin consists of eight aspects: Fard, wajib, sunnat, mustahab, mubah, haram, makruh, mufsid. Things that are not prohibited, or though prohibited, their prohibition has been abolished through one of the reasons which the Shari’at accepts as an excuse, a hindrance or a necessity, are called Halal. All mubahs are halal. For example, it is halal to lie in order to reconcile two Muslims. Everything that is halal may not be mubah. For example, it is not mubah, but it is makruh to go shopping while the adhan is being called. Nevertheless, it is halal. A Muslim crier calls Muslims to pray when it is prayer time; this public announcement is called the adhan.